The selection of building materials to a huge extent shapes building impact on the environment. In the era of widespread awareness of health problems arising from the toxicity of chemical substances, healthy and safe materials of organic origin are even more important. The work discusses examples of the use of straw bales in thermal retrofitting of buildings located in Austria, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The experience of the practical applications of this material in renovations of buildings located in similar climatic conditions indicates that these solutions can be used successfully in Poland. The prevalence of this technology can make a significant contribution to reduction of gaseous emissions, waste, as well as the emission of noise, vibration radiation.